The writing required in college courses may be different than anything you’ve encountered before. English classes taken in middle school, and sometimes in the early years of high school, provide the basics, but many students lose these abilities before they begin college. In addition, for nontraditional students who haven’t studied English in a while, making the transition to academic writing can be difficult.
Professors in all majors expect students to come in their courses with high-level writing abilities. A gap in skill level is often met with remedial English courses in the very first semester of college. Use this guide to refresh your skill of basic grammar rules, and to understand what you need to know and apply in your college classes. This resource can also serve as a reference as you accomplish your very first written assignments.
Types of Academic Writing
There are different writing styles, each with a different purpose or audience. There are situations in which one style will be more suitable than another, and there is a multitude of strategies you can use to treatment the work. This section of our guide provides an overview of the writing types you will likely encounter as a college student.
Assignments that require you to support a position, claim or opinion involve a persuasive writing treatment. These papers are framed with a thesis statement. which introduces a focused assertion. Examples include: “Fast food consumption is linked to heart disease in low-income communities,” and “The chemicals used in pesticides pose the most significant threat to our health in the 21st century.” The remainder of the paper provides a logical argument and relevant evidence that supports the claim introduced in the thesis. Tips for writing argument papers include:
- Clearly describe the central issue, position or premise.
- Provide evidence that supports the position introduced in your thesis statement.
- Develop a conclusion based on the evidence you provided.
Research papers can take numerous forms, depending on the purpose and specific requirements of your class assignment. This format can be used to describe the methods used in your own research project, present the results of a research project and to describe the research that has already been ended in an area of interest. Some assignments require a combination of these approaches. These papers typically include formal sections. such as an introduction, review of existing research literature, analysis, discussion of results and conclusion. Tips for writing research papers include:
Similar to argument and persuasive essays, expository papers require you to research an idea or concept and provide supporting evidence. This type of writing includes a thesis statement, as well as the logical presentation of sources that address the idea you are exploring in your paper. A five-paragraph format is typical for expository essays: (1) introduction paragraph, (2-4) three bod paragraphs, (Five) conclusion paragraph. This form of writing is often used to evaluate your skill of a topic and can be included in exams. Tips for writing expository papers include:
Professors often use written exams to measure your skill of a specific topic, understanding of a sophisticated concept or comprehension of course reading and resources. These essays can include components of argument and persuasion, research and exposition, as directed by your instructor. The very first step in prep for essay exams is to accomplish all of your course reading assignments, participate in discussions and organize your notes and probe time. This should take place across the course, not just in time for the exam date. Tips for exam essay writing include:
Academic proposals are typically written as part of grant applications or for professional conference presentations. They often outline a research plan or project idea with a objective of gaining support from another group. This type of writing is more common in graduate-level investigate, but may be encountered by undergraduates involved in collaborative research projects with professors and other students. Tips for writing academic proposals include:
Common Writing Pitfalls
The decent use of grammar increases the clarity of your writing, and creates an effortless flow of words and ideas for the reader to go after. Common problems occur when using the passive voice, incorrect punctuation and confusing word options. The examples in this section provide easy-to-remember tips to avoid these errors in your own writing.
Active vs. Passive Voice
Active voice is generally preferred in most forms of writing. It places emphasis on the subject of a sentence and the act taking place. Active voice usually requires fewer words than passive voice and communicates activity more clearly to the reader.
Some of the most common forms of punctuation are listed below, along with tips for putting them to use.
Commas divide sentences into separate components, which improves readability, creates a pause and connects thoughts. They may be used with conjunctions (e.g. and, but, for, so), to separate items in a series, or to emphasize a phrase or clause.
A colon is primarily used to introduce something in a sentence, but it can also draw attention to a list, example, quotation, noun or phrase.
Semicolons separate items in a list when one or more of the items includes a comma. They are also used to join two sentences or independent clauses.
Hyphen guidelines are not as rigorous as those for other types of punctuation. Primary use includes connecting two words to create a compound adjective when they come before a noun in a sentence. They are also used with some prefixes.
Apostrophes and the letter ‘s’ are used to indicate possessive nouns. This is different than creating a plural noun with only the ‘s.’
Periods are used to end sentences, and in some abbreviations. Check your style guide (e.g. APA, MLA) for more specific instructions on abbreviations, since the rules vary.
Words to Observe
Many college students fight with some of the most common punctuation and grammar mistakes. Review the words listed below, along with tips for decent usage.
They’re, their, there
These words all sound the same, but have different meanings. They’re is the spasm of they and are ; their is possessive (as in, it belongs to them) and there is a location (as in, here or there).
Two, too, to
These words all sound the same, but have different meanings. Two is a number (as in, one, two, three). Too is used to say “also” or as an alternative to “very.” To is a preposition (which often indicated movement) or as part of an infinitive (e.g. to write).
Its is a possessive pronoun. It’s is the spasm of it and is. If you get confused in your writing, attempt substituting the word you want with “his” or “her.” If you can do this, use its (without an apostrophe).
Weather is a reference to the atmosphere and conditions like rain and snow. Whether introduces alternatives and is similar to the word “if.”
The use of alot is usually considered an error. Use a lot (two separate words) to indicate a large number or many.
For extra assistance with grammar and punctuation, attempt the following writing implements and resources:
Citations provide a way for you to give attribution to the authors that inform your writing, and help you avoid plagiarism. Citations should give credit to those whose ideas or concepts you include in your work, direct quotations and paraphrasing. Style guides provide a structured way to format citations so that they are consistent and verifiable. There are many style guides to choose from, but the three introduced in this section of our guide are widely used by colleges and universities. Check with your instructors to make sure you are using the preferred style guide in your classes.
The Modern Language Association (MLA) writing guidelines are used by a broad range of schools and professional publications. Students in English, foreign language, cultural studies, literature and arts programs typically use the MLA style for their written assignments. See the examples below:
King, Stephen. The Bazaar of Bad Desires. Fresh York: Scribner, 2015. Print.
Allen, Darryl E. and Jo Lacy Idlebird. “Depreciation’s Effect on Capital Budgeting Metrics Needs More Educator Concentrate.” American Journal of Business Research vol. 7 no. 1 (2014): 45-51. Questia. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham. “Research Methods for Educational Enquiry: Methodological Approaches for Small-scale Research.” 05 July 2012. Online movie clip. YouTube. Accessed on 24 Nov. 2015. https://www.youtube.com/observe?v=rXIjnAgijS0
“French Revolution.” History.com. A+E Networks, 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
(Author, page number)
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of investments (Allen and Idlebird 45).
According to Allen and Idlebird “the format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (45).
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (Allen and Idlebird 45).
MLA style recommends in-text citations (as illustrated above). However, longer, explanatory notes may be included as footnotes (placed at the bottom of the page on which they emerge) or endnotes (listed on a separate page at the end of the document). These options provide readers with extra resources and background information not necessary needed in the main text of the paper.
- Studies by Jones (102) and Williams (40) provide similar conclusions related to needed research in the area of student business finance abilities.
Footnotes can also be used instead of the parenthetical in-text citations described in the section above. Check with your instructor to confirm what is expected for your assignments.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), originally published in 1929, is presently in its 6th edition. It has been adopted for use primarily in the fields of psychology and education, as well as many social science disciplines. See the examples below:
King, S. (2015). The bazaar of bad desires. Fresh York, NY: Scribner.
Allen, D. E. & Idlebird, J. L. (2014). Depreciation’s effect on capital budgeting metrics needs more educator concentrate. American Journal of Business Research 7(1), 45-51. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham (2012, July Five). Research methods for educational enquiry: methodological approaches for small-scale research [Movie file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/see?v=rXIjnAgijS0
French revolution. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution
(Author, year of publication, page number)
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of investments (Allen and Idlebird, 2014).
According to Allen and Idlebird (2014), “the format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (p. 45).
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (Allen & Idlebird, 2014, p. 45).
APA style recommends in-text citations (as illustrated above). However, longer, explanatory notes may added as footnotes. These notes provide readers with extra resources and background information, which may not be included in the main text of your paper. APA style does not include the use of endnotes. Check with your instructor before adding footnotes to your written assignments.
The Chicago Manual of Style is published by the University of Chicago and is presently in its 16th edition. It is often required for students in the humanities, arts and social sciences. This guide is one of the most comprehensive writing manuals, providing detailed formatting instructions for a broad multiplicity of writing situations. See the examples below:
King, Stephen. 2015. The Bazaar of Bad Fantasies. Fresh York: Scribner.
Allen, Darryl E. and Jo Lacy Idlebird. 2014. “Depreciation’s Effect on Capital Budgeting Metrics Needs More Educator Concentrate.” American Journal of Business Research 7: 45-51. Accessed November 24, 2015. https://www.questia.com/read/1P3-3725860091/depreciation-s-effect-on-
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham. “Research Methods for Educational Enquiry: Methodological Approaches for Small-scale Research.” YouTube movie, 1:06:12. July Five, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/witness?v=rXIjnAgijS0.
History.com. 2009. “French Revolution.” Accessed November 24, 2015. http://www.history.com/topics/ french-revolution.
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of investments (Allen and Idlebird 2014).
According to Allen and Idlebird (2014), “the format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (45).
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (Allen and Idlebird 2014, 45).
Notes and bibliography
Chicago style includes two primary options for citing referenced works:
Check with your instructor to see which Chicago treatment is adequate for your class assignments.
Notes are often abbreviated versions of the citations provided in a bibliography. Note the formatting differences in the following examples:
King, Stephen.The Bazaar of Bad Wishes. Fresh York: Scribner, 2015.
Extra Writing Types
While you may not encounter these as class assignments, the following are significant forms of writing that you will need for college admissions and course communication, as well as in your career after graduation.
Individual Statement or Letter of Intent
College applications at the undergraduate and graduate level typically require some sort of written statement that includes your interests, goals and reasons for applying. These essays may also be part of scholarship applications, and are similar to cover letters used in the job search process. Tips for writing individual statements include:
Email is a primary source of communication in many education and employment settings. As you engage in email conversations with college officials and professors, keep in mind that this is a professional exchange. There are expectations for the composition of messages and the etiquette used. Tips for email use include:
Blogs and Journals
Some courses require students to maintain private blogs as a way to submit assignments, encourage reflective learning or to develop portfolios. Whether this is part of your program or something you pursue on your own, it is significant to understand the influence of effective writing in these formats. Tips for student blogging include:
Online Writing Centers and Guides
These can be helpful contraptions, but always dual check the output with your style manual before adding to your bibliography! You will be responsible for any mistakes or omissions the generators might make.